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OntoLedger - Ontologic Ledger

OntoLedger is the Ontologic System (OS) component that provides the basic functionalities for the Ontologic Ledger.

The OntoLedger component integrates the ontologic approach, specifically the components:

provides the consensus protocols

  • vote-based consensus
    • Byzantine Fault Tolerance (BFT),
    • Practical Byzantine Fault Tolerance (PBFT or PraBFT),
    • Simplified Byzantine Fault Tolerance (SBFT),
    • Plenum Byzantine Fault Tolerance (PBFT or PleBFT),
    • Redundant Byzantine Fault Tolerance (RBFT),
    • Proactive Byzantine Fault Tolerance (PBFT or ProBFT) with proactive recovery,
    • B-Chain Byzantine Fault Tolerance (B-BFT), and
    • Crash Fault Tolerance (CFT),
  • lottery-based consensus
    • Proof of Elapsed Time (PoET),
    • Proof of Work (PoW), and
    • Proof of Stake (PoS),
  • Paxos,
  • lockstep,
    • synchron and
    • asynchron,
  • hybrid consensus respectively pluggable consensus, and
  • (Cognitive) Multi-Agent System ((C)MAS) consensus
    • realized with the
    • based on Pure Rationality, and
    • implemented as for example the
      • fuzzy voting model also used for ontology mapping and semantic data integration,


  • variable finality modes
    • immediate,
    • event-triggered respectively
      • time-based and
      • space-based,

    and optional

  • zero knowlegdge founded on the Zero Ontology O#, and
  • verification,

supports the contract protocols

  • smart contract,
  • Ricardian contract, and
  • multi-signature account or multisig contract.

supports the blockchain methods

  • permissionless and
  • permissioned,

and is compatible with frameworks, architectures, and systems for network computing or distributed computing (e.g. Peer-to-Peer (P2P) computing and cloud computing)

  • based on the supported contract protocols and blockchain methods, and
  • used for establishing distributed ledgers, distributed settlements, and Decentralized Autonomous Organizations (DAOs).

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